Notocolossus

Notocolossus , one of the largest land animal that lived in the Earth Knowledge of titanosaurian pedal structure is critical to  under...

South American titanosaurs




Titanosaur sauropods in Mendoza (Argentina), 71 million year ago. 
These criatures of 13 m long  produced the Titanopodus footprints (illustration of B. Gonzalez Riga, all right reserved)



The sauropod clade Titanosauria is one of the most diverse and interesting dinosaur groups. Their fossils show an amazing size range, and some of them, were the largest animals ever to walk the Earth. Titanosaurs like NotocolossusArgentinosaurus, Futalognkosaurus, and Puertasaurus surpassed lengths of 30 m and masses of 40 tons.




Discovery of an articulated pes (titanosaur sauropod) in the Argentinean Patagonia.
 / Descubrimiento de un pie articulado (saurópodo titanosaurio) en la Patagonia argentina.



Titanosaurs exhibit a worldwide distribution useful for paleobiogeographic studies. They were important terrestrial herbivores during the Jurassic and specially the Cretaceous periods, and their remains have been recovered from all continents. Moreover, their fossil record is important for studying the composition of dinosaur faunas near the mass extinction at the K-T boundary. Another interesting aspect of titanosaurs is their extraordinary diversity, similar to that of the Late Cretaceous North American hadrosaurids. At the time of this writing, more than 48 titanosaur species have been discovered, around one third of all known sauropods. In this context, phylogenetic studies of titanosaurs are important as a basis for further evolutionary and paleobiogeographic interpretations. Likewise, locomotion and growth strategies are topics of great interest.



Cervical vertebra of Mendozasaurus,
a huge titanosaur from Argentina (González Riga, 2005).

Unfortunately, these research topics have been limited by the fossil record, since most titanosaur species, like other sauropods, are represented by incomplete and mostly disarticulated skeletal elements, such as dorsal and caudal vertebrae, and appendicular bones. However, this situation is changing with the discovery of well preserved specimens, such as the titanosaur Rapetosaurus collected in Madagascar (Curry Rogers and Forster, 2001). Several new genera, such as Gobititan (You et al. 2003) and Sonidosaurus (Xu et al., 2006), were discovered in Asia. In Europe, the titanosaurs Aragosaurus (Sanz et al., 1987; Canudo et al., 2001) and Lirainosaurus (Sanz et al., 1999) and the basal somphospondilyan Tastavinsaurus (Canudo et al., 2008) were described. Likewise, during the last decade, news titanosaur genera were discovered in South America; in Argentina and Brazil the record now reaches 40 genera (see Table 1).
  
Moreover, in Patagonia, extraordinary embryos and eggs (Chiappe et al., 1998, 2001; Salgado et al., 2005a) and exceptionally articulated specimens (Martínez et al., 2004; Calvo et al., 2007a; González Riga et al., 2008) were found.These discoveries show the importance of the South American record for understanding both the phylogeny and paleobiology (ontogenetic stages, behavior and locomotion) of titanosaurs.



Cladogram showing the phylogenetic relationships of some titanosaur sauropods, after González Riga et al. (2009).





Cladogram showing the phylogenetic relationships of some titanosaurs (Gonzalez Riga and Ortiz David, 2014)




 Phylogenetic relationships of Eusauropoda showing the new titanosaur Notocolossus (Gonzalez Riga et al. 2016).









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Table 1. South American titanosaur species







Especies
Autor-es
Unidad litoestratigráfica del hallazgo
País
Edad

1
Adamantisaurus mezzalirai
Santucci y Bertini 2006
Formación Adamantina
Brasil
Campaniano-Maastrichtiano?

2
Aeolosaurus rionegrinus
Powell, 1987
Formación Angostura Colorada
Argentina
Campaniano
 tardío- Maastrichtiano

3
Aeolosaurus colhuehapensis
Casal, Martínez, Luna, Sciutto y Lamanna 2007
Formación Bajo Barreal
Argentina
Cenomaniano tardío-Turoniano temprano

4
Aeolosaurus maximus
Santucci y Campos 2011
Formación Adamantina
Brasil
Campaniano-Maastrichtiano

Agustinia ligabuei
Bonaparte 1999
Formación Lohan Cura
Argentina
Apitano tardío-Albiano

5
Amargatitanis macni
Apesteguía 2007
Formación La Amarga
Argentina
Barremiano-Aptiano temprano

6
Andesaurus delgadoi
Calvo y Bonaparte 1991
Formación Cyeleros
Argentina
Cenomaniano temprano
7
Antarctosaurus wichmanianus
Huene 1929
Formación Anacleto?
Argentina
Campaniano temprano

8
Argentinosaurus huinculensis
Bonaparte y Coria 1993
Formación Huincul
Argentina
Cenomaniano temprano

9
Argyrosaurus superbus
Lydekker 1893
Formación Bajo Barreal
Argentina
Cenomaniano tardío-Turoniano temprano

10
Atacamatitan chilensis
Kellner, Rubilar-Rogers, Vargas y Suárez 2011
Formación Tolar
Chile
Maastrichtiano

11
Baurutitan britoi
Kellner, Campos y Trotta 2005
Formación Marília
Brasil
Maastrichtiano

12
Barrosasaurus casamiquelai
Salgado y Coria 2009
Formación Anacleto
Argentina
Campaniano temprano

13

Bonatitan reigi
Martinelli y Forasiepi 2004
Formación Allen
Argentina
Campaniano tardío-Maastrichtiano temprano

14
Bonitasaura salgadoi
Apesteguía 2004
Formación Bajo de la Carpa
Argentina
Santoniano

15
Chubutisaurus insignis
Del Corro 1975
Formación Cerro Barcino
Argentina
Aptiano-Albiano

16
Drusilasaura deseadensis
Navarrete, Casal, Martínez 2011
Formación
Bajo Barreal
Argentina
Cenomaniano tardío-
Turoniano temprano



17
Epachthosaurus sciuttoi
Powell, 1990
Formación Bajo Barreal
Argentina
Cenomaniano temprano-Turoniano tardío

18
Futalonkosaurus dukei
Calvo, Porfiri, González Riga y Kellner 2007
Formación Portezuelo
Argentina
Turoniano tardío-Coniaciano temprano

19
Gondwanatitan faustoi
Kellner y Azevedo 1999
Grupo Bauru
Brasil
Santoniano-Maastrichthiano

20
Laplatasaurus araukanicus
Huene 1929
Formación Anacleto?
Argentina
Campaniano temprano

21
Ligabuesaurus leanzai
Bonaparte, González Riga, y Apesteguía 2006
Formación Lohan Cura
Argentina
Aptiano tardío-Albiano

22
Malarguesaurus florenciae
González Riga, Previtera, y Pirrone 2009
Formación Portezuelo
Argentina
Turoniano tardío-Coniaciano temprano

23
Maxakalisaurus topai
Kellner, Campos, Azevedo, Trotta, Henriques, Craik, y Silva 2006
Formación Adamantina
Brasil
Campaniano-Maastrichtiano?

24
Mendozasaurus neguyelap
González Riga 2003
Formación Portezuelo-Plottier
Argentina
Turoniano tardío- Coniaciano

25
Muyelensaurus pecheni
Calvo, González Riga y Porfiri, 2007
Formación Portezuelo
Argentina
Turoniano tardío-Coniaciano temprano
26
Narambuenatitan palomoi
Filippi, García y Garrido 2011
Formación Anacleto
Argentina
Campaniano medio

27
Neuquensaurus australis
(Lydekker, 1893) Powell, 1986
Formación Anacleto
Argentina
Campaniano temprano

28
Panamericansaurus schroederi
Calvo y Porfiri 2010
Formación Allen
Argentina
Campaniano tardio-Maastrichtiano

29
Pellegrinisaurus powelli
Salgado 1996
Formación Anacleto
Argentina
Campaniano temprano

30
Petrobrasaurus puestohernandezi
Filippi, Canudo, Salgado, Garrido, García, Cerda y Otero 2011
Plottier
Formation
Argentina
Coniaciano-Santoniano

31
Pitekunsaurus macayai
Filippi y Garrido 2008
Formación Anacleto
Argentina
Campaniano temprano
-------
32
 Puertasaurus reuili
Novas, Salgado, Calvo, y Agnolin 2005
Formación Pari Aike
Argentina
Maastrichtiano temprano

33
Quetecsaurus rusconii
Gonzalez Riga y Ortiz David, 2014
Formacion Anacleto
Argentina
Campaniano inferior

34
Rinconsaurus caudamirus
Calvo y González Riga 2003
Formación Portezuelo-Plottier
Argentina
Turoniano tardío-Coniaciano

35
Rocasaurus muniozi
Salgado y Azpilicueta 2000
Formación Allen
Argentina
Campaniano tardío-Maastrichtiano temprano

36
Saltasaurus loricatus
Bonaparte y Powell 1980
Formación Lecho
Argentina
Campaniano-Maastrichtiano

37
Tapuiasaurus macedoi
Zaher, Pol, Carvalho, Nascimento, Riccomini, Larson, Juarez-Valieri, Pires-Domingues, da Silva, Campos 2011
Formación Quiricó
Brasil
Aptiano?

38
Traukutitan eocaudata
Juárez Valieri y Calvo 2011
Formación Bajo de la Carpa
Argentina
Santoniano

39

Trigonosaurus pricei
Campos, Kellner, Bertini, y Santucci 2005
Formación Marília
Brasil
Maastrichtiano

40
Uberabatitan ribeiroi
Salgado y Souza Carvalho 2008
Formación Marília
Brasil
Maastrichtiano

Table 1. South American taxa (González Riga and Ortiz David, 2014)


Rinconsaurus caudamirus
(life restoration of B. González Riga, all right reserved).


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